Born from the same mother, why slaughter each so frightfully.

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The poem of Musk, the richest man in the world, has aroused many speculations. This poem originating from 1800 years ago expresses the extreme grief of the Chinese royal family Cao Zhi after he learned that his brothers were trying to harm him for his own interests. It fully reveals through metaphors that “I am a family, why bother with each other. "The helplessness.

Musk, who doesn't speak Chinese, may have no other profound meaning, but this classic poem extends to the industry, and one can't help but think of two hands-on-hands, building and structure for many years. The two majors that were originally born from the same root are more like Siamese babies separated by surgery. From the time when mankind began to build houses until the germination of modernism began to develop, in a strict sense, these two parts belonged to the same type of work-craftsmen (the best of them was "style thunder", Qing Dynasty palace builders). Division family).

As the types of architectural elements in modernist architecture have increased, the boundaries have become clearer, and the popularity of industrialization has brought about increased productivity, which gradually gave birth to different subdivisions in the construction industry.


"The Standard Bearer of Modern Architecture" Le Corbusier


After this “surgery” of the separation of work types, there are many cases of building classic architectural images through structures, such as the high-tech masters Norman Foster and Richard Rogers. represent.


30 St Mary Axe ©Foster+Partners


Lloyd’s Building ©Richard Rogers


The subdivision of work types has brought about the improvement of professional level and work efficiency in the decades after surgery. However, in today's architectural world decades later, the long separation caused them to dilute the multiplication of blood in their genes, and they also began to pick faults from their respective standpoints. It seems to gradually forget the ultimate goal of the common craftsman ancestor in the work-to build a good house. Differences in consciousness urgently need to be unified.

As the leader of an architectural project, the architect is always the most shining role. The architect, the role that makes the building stand up from the drawings, is responsible for many vital tasks behind the scenes, but rarely has the opportunity to make a sound and make an appearance. Aside from the architect's perspective, we look at the back of those urban landmarks from the perspective of a senior structural expert.


"Style Thunder" drawing


  Back to university to study cooperation

The problem of cooperation between various majors has actually been formed in colleges and universities. When I was in college, although it was called the Civil Engineering College, the architecture was in the same building, and the structure major was in the same building. Teachers didn't communicate very much, and students seldom communicated. This may have produced such a feeling from the source: structure is structure, and architecture is building. It is very difficult to enter the same company after graduation and be required to cooperate in completing the project.



In fact, housing architecture is also included in the university courses of structural majors, but without drawing, students need to master a series of related basic knowledge of architectural design and construction. Enhancing understanding and enhancing trust are the basis for cooperation between professionals. I would recommend the architects around me to look at building-related codes, such as residential codes, to expand my knowledge and work with architects more smoothly.

Many common sayings in the industry are saying this, for example: an architect sweats when he draws a line structure. A joke is a joke, but the feeling of always following the change is always bad, and it will make the two majors start to resist subconsciously. Many of our teams have both architectural and structural majors. In the process of doing the project, everyone communicates fully. Of course, quarrels are inevitable. I think the conflict itself is very normal. Sometimes everyone talks to themselves, but overall there must be a goal. For example, some places need spatial effects, and some places need to take care of the cost. With the key points, everyone's discussions are centered on this point. This is a benign conflict resolution. Way.



The architect can also influence the space experience:

We analyze floor comfort  

In fact, comfort is an issue that is often overlooked.

There are two types of comfort usually encountered in structural design: one is that in the case of wind or earthquake, the vibration generated by the structure makes people very uncomfortable, which is also called "external excitation". In terms of the structure as a whole, for example, the frequency of the wind coincides with certain frequencies of the structure. The shaking incident of Shenzhen SEG Building, which was discussed on the Internet some time ago, is a problem of resonance. In fact, it is a little bit of a very small force. As long as its frequency is consistent with the frequency of a certain order of the main building, a building may move. The frequency of the SEG Building may not be consistent with the frequency of the wind, but the wind stimulates the vibration of the mast, and if the frequency is consistent with the frequency of the structure, resonance will occur, causing the building to shake.

In order to prevent vibration caused by external excitation, we will use wind tunnel tests to truly simulate the wind field of this plot. Under the action of the simulated wind field, we can see how much the acceleration of the building structure is, and can it be less than the specification limit? When the acceleration is less than the specification limit, it is comfortable to use, but everyone's sensitivity to acceleration is different, and the feeling in the building will be different, but the design needs to meet this basic requirement.


Wind tunnel test


Another situation involving comfort is found in large-span or large cantilevered floors. These floors may be made very thin in order to save floor height or improve visual effects. If a steel structure is used, its deformation will be relatively large, and people will shake when they walk up. In this case, the local comfort is related to the frequency of the local vibration of the large-span floor of the structure, and the normal walking or running of a person has a frequency range. If this frequency range is exactly the same as the floor vibration of this part When the frequency range of is approaching, the floor will feel swaying, and people's experience in the space will deteriorate.

In the design, places with the best views are often made into large overhangs, and special attention should be paid to structural comfort in such parts. When encountering a large span and large cantilever, the dynamic load of pedestrians should be added to the calculation to see if there is any comfort problem at the bottom. Because once there is a comfort problem, it often appears in the space where this type of function is more important, and the impact will be great.


The big stand of Idea Factory ©MVRDV


 Over-limit and high-level: the structural division is the big killer

I have been responsible for the structural design of many over-limit high-rise buildings. For example, Hengfeng Guiyang Center and Shenzhen Qianhai World Trade Building have been completed, and those to be built are Shenzhen Zhiwenbo Building.

Although Zhizheng Building is only 200 meters high, its structure is very challenging. The first challenge is that there are no pillars on two of the four sides of the building at the bottom. The pillars on one side are picked out from the core layer on the 9th floor, and on the other side are squeezed together by several pillars on the ground, slowly diverging into a row of pillars through the space, and then transitioning upwards to a square frame Core tube structure. This structure is particularly interesting, and we have to do everything possible to realize it.


Zhiwenbo Building ©Zhubo Design


One of the difficulties is that a row of columns on a spatial curved surface is spatially unstable, and outrigger trusses are used to extend from the core tube to assist in support. The floor area itself is not large, such a structure may affect the use, as well as the layout of the tube well and equipment room. At this time, it is very necessary to coordinate and cooperate with each other. Let's do calculations first and then see if everyone's majors can do it? No, we will adjust until we are satisfied in all aspects.

The second challenge is that the aspect ratio of the core tube has reached 21, and the core tube is only 9.6 meters wide. In addition, the bottom floor lacks frame columns. Under the action of earthquakes and wind, the tower deforms too much, which will exceed the specification limit. . Through mutual discussion and mutual concessions between the various professions, everyone worked out a solution, and finally re-adjusted the elevator room on the south side of the podium so that it could help the core tube shear wall to bear the force together.


Schematic diagram of anti-lateral force system of Bo Building


Although this building is very tiring, it has a lot of inspiration. For example, if you cooperate in advance, you can avoid a lot of detours. For buildings with complex shapes, you should cooperate with each professional from the planning stage. In particular, the feasibility of the structural specialty plays a vital role in the landing of the entire plan. Each major puts forward each individual's needs in the early stage, which can reduce a lot of repeated "inversions" in the later stage.

Self-cultivation of qualified architects  

One of cultivation is to have a mentality of constant challenge, so professional difficulties can always be realized. If it is really impossible to achieve, we will coordinate and negotiate together, and we will always get this thing up. Throughout the work process, architects and structural engineers are a process of growing together.。

The foundation is to love the profession and find the part of self-realization in the work. Just treat the structural engineer as a job and do a good job in one's own profession. It seems that the content of other professions is irrelevant to me, and I will never do well.

In order to achieve the overall landing effect, it is recommended that the architects should also understand certain architectural content. When encountering conflicts between the architectural plan and the structure, they can propose their own architectural solutions from the perspective of a reasonable structure. This communication is much more effective. It's not just about taking care of the things within one's own profession.


 Architects in the future 


We are currently in a good era of vigorous development of civil engineering in my country. With the completion of a large number of iconic major civil engineering projects in our country, the scale and complexity of the structure continue to be refreshed. The level of science and technology in all aspects has achieved rapid development, reaching unprecedented heights.

In terms of structural design, large spans, large cantilevers, high-position conversion, curved columns, thin waists, and thin necks have become the norm in structural design. The establishment and realization of every complex structural system is an unprecedented challenge.

From the perspective of the entire industry, there are still many urgent problems in the aspects of resource and energy consumption, environmental protection, service life, safety and reliability, and disaster resistance, which have become the current challenges in the field of structural engineering.


Two-story 3D printed building in Belgium


There will not be too many innovations in the principles of structural design. The emergence of new things may be related to new construction techniques and new materials. In the past few years, 3D printed whole-house concrete two-story residential buildings appeared in Europe, but such structures are also limited to low-rise buildings. The design principle of traditional concrete structure is to combine the characteristics of different materials, that is, the tensile performance of steel bars and the compressive performance of concrete are combined to form a stable structure. How new construction technology can combine these materials in new ways, let us continue to look forward to it.



Wang Jinwen

Deputy Chief Engineer of Zhubo Design Structure

Member of Zhubo Design Structure Professional Technical Committee

General Manager of Structural R&D Center/Doctor of Engineering/Postdoctoral

National Grade One Registered Structural Engineer

Senior engineer


As a guiding text for structural design and even the design of the entire project, the general description of structural design is a powerful tool for structural engineers to coordinate professional work. However, the professional use of this tool is often turning the cart before the horse. As a structural engineer must sort out a content, what do related experts think about it?


As a guiding text for guiding the structure and even the entire project design, the general structural design description is a powerful tool for the structural engineer to coordinate professional work, and its core meaning is to guide the later design.

It is mainly divided into the following parts: project overview, main design basis, structural design level, main technical indicators, and structural structure.

Zhubo Design has achieved the standardization of structural design within the group, but there will be some differences in it according to the geographical differences of the project, and some of the content can also be adjusted according to local conditions.



Zhang Wei

Deputy Chief Engineer of Zhubo Design Structure

Member of Zhubo Design Structure Professional Technical Committee

Chief Structural Engineer of Shanghai Company

National Grade One Registered Structural Engineer


Course preview


More about the cooperation content of each major in the landing project will be presented in the courses of the Zhubo Training Academy in this issue. A number of senior instructors of Zhubo design from various professional fields will elaborate on the knowledge and experience of inter-professional cooperation through case sharing and other methods. There will be reports on related courses in the follow-up, so stay tuned.



Zhubo Training Institute is designed by Zhubo to combine the current market and industry development trends, and based on its own 25 years of actual combat experience, it has precipitated a set of talent strategic training programs for the group. Starting from June 2021, Zhubo Training Academy has launched a series of courses to empower construction practitioners at different stages to improve their work abilities, obtain job competencies, and become the backbone of the group for the future. Classrooms are carried out flexibly through tutor case explanations, student case sharing, and open discussions between tutors and trainees, allowing trainees and tutors to discuss related topics, share relevant experiences, and learn professional knowledge in an active atmosphere.


Those who are not labeled in the picture are from the tutor and the Internet

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